The use of artificial intelligence (AI) deepfakes in political campaigns has been growing in recent years. Deepfakes involve AI technology that can alter and manipulate authentic images and videos to create fake ones that are nearly impossible to distinguish from real ones.

This has led to the spread of false information and misrepresentation of political candidates, ultimately influencing the outcome of elections. This post will discuss spotting AI deepfakes on political campaigns and protecting yourself from misinformation.

For the past few years, deepfakes have been making waves on the internet, making it harder for people to distinguish between accurate and manipulated content. With the upcoming election season, using deepfakes in political campaigns is inevitable and could have catastrophic consequences.

Unfortunately, not everyone is well versed in identifying deepfakes, which poses a significant challenge for those trying to keep up with the fast-paced digital world.

Why Detecting DeepFakes is Important for Countering Misinformation Political Campaigns

The advent of deepfakes has introduced a new era of challenges in the fight against misinformation in political campaigns. With the rise of digital technologies, manipulating audio and video content has become increasingly accessible, leading to an alarming surge in the spread of fake news.

This has posed a significant threat to democracy, undermining public trust in essential institutions and reducing the validity of reliable information.

As political campaigns continue to rely on social media platforms to reach and influence their voters, deepfakes have the potential to cause significant harm.

Creating deepfake videos that can depict political figures saying or doing things they never did can severely damage their reputation, causing confusion among voters about the authenticity of their message. Furthermore, exaggerating or providing false information about opponents can tilt the balance of opinion on social media platforms in favor of one candidate, influencing election outcomes.

Techniques for Spotting AI-generated Misinformation on Political Campaigns

Check the Source

When spotting AI-generated misinformation on political campaigns, one of the most important things to do is to check the source. It is easy for AI-generated content to be shared by accounts that are not associated with the campaign or candidate in question.

If you come across a range that appears suspicious, take a moment to verify who posted it and if they are indeed associated with the campaign or candidate.

Research the Claims

Another technique for spotting AI-generated misinformation on political campaigns is to research any claims made in the content. It likely is if a claim seems too good (or bad) to be true. Do a quick search online to see if there is any evidence to back up what is being said. If there isn’t, then it’s likely that the information is false and has been generated by an AI system.

Look Out for Repetitive Content

AI-generated content often follows a similar pattern and can be easily spotted by looking for repetitive content. For example, if you come across multiple posts from different accounts containing similar language or images, this could be a sign of AI-generated content.

Look out for posts that use generic language such as “Vote for [candidate]” without providing any specific reasons why someone should vote for them.

Consider Context

It’s also important to consider context when spotting AI-generated misinformation on political campaigns. Please pay attention to when and where the post was made, who it was aimed at, and why they were targeted with this particular message.

This can help you determine whether or not an AI system created the post or if it genuinely came from a human being associated with the campaign or candidate in question.

Analyze Sentiment

Sentiment analysis can also spot AI-generated misinformation on political campaigns by analyzing how people respond to specific messages or images shared online about a particular candidate or issue.

If people seem overly positive or negative about something without explaining why they feel this way, this could indicate that they have been influenced by automated systems rather than real-life experiences and opinions of individuals involved in the campaign or race in question.

Verify Images

Images can also be manipulated using artificial intelligence technology to spread false information during political campaigns, so verifying doubles before believing their contents is essential.

If you encounter an image related to a political campaign, look into its origins and ensure it hasn’t been altered using digital manipulation tools.

Monitor Social Media Accounts

Social media accounts associated with political campaigns should be monitored closely when spotting generated misinformation.

Keep an eye out for any suspicious activity, such as sudden changes in posting frequency, sudden follower spikes, or posts containing language that doesn’t seem quite right. These indicate that automated systems are being used instead of genuine human interaction.

Utilize Fact Checking Sites

Utilizing fact-checking sites such as Snopes and Politifact can help you identify potential sources of false information related to political campaigns that artificial intelligence systems may have generated.

These sites regularly review claims made during elections and other high-profile events to identify any potential falsehoods that may have been spread through automated means.

DeepFake Detection Challenge: Building Innovative Technologies for Political Campaigns

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

The DeepFake Detection Challenge is focused on building innovative technologies to detect and prevent the spread of deepfakes on political campaigns.

AI-driven solutions can detect deepfakes by analyzing audio and video data for patterns and anomalies not found in authentic content. AI can also be used to identify the source of a deepfake, allowing campaigns to take action against malicious actors quickly and effectively.

Machine Learning (ML)

Machine learning (ML) is an essential tool for detecting deepfakes. It allows algorithms to learn from data over time and better recognize patterns in content that indicate a deepfake.

ML can be used to train models that identify various types of manipulation, such as facial recognition, voice synthesis, or image splicing. These models can then be deployed in real time to detect deepfakes before they spread online.

Natural Language Processing (NLP)

Natural language processing (NLP) is another critical technology for detecting deepfakes, as it allows algorithms to analyze text-based content for signs of manipulation or fabrication.

NLP can be used to identify suspicious phrases or words that may indicate a deepfake, such as claims that are too good to be true or phrasing that does not match the context of the conversation.

Computer Vision

Computer vision is a powerful tool for detecting deepfakes, enabling algorithms to analyze images and videos for signs of manipulation or fabrication. Using facial recognition technology, computer vision can identify elements in an image or video that have been altered or added, such as objects removed from the scene or swapped with someone else’s face.

Digital Forensics

Digital forensics is an essential technology for identifying sources of deepfakes by analyzing digital artifacts left behind when a file is created, edited, or shared online.

Digital forensics tools can trace back the origin of a file by analyzing metadata associated with the file, such as when it was created or who has accessed it in the past. Campaigns can then use this information to track malicious actors spreading fake content online.


Cryptography is another critical technology for preventing the spread of deepfakes on political campaigns. It allows files to be securely encrypted so they cannot be accessed without authorization from the creator. Cryptography also ensures that any changes made to a file are detectable so users can verify if a file has been tampered with before sharing it online.

Blockchain Technology

Blockchain technology is an emerging tool for protecting against deepfakes. It provides an immutable record of all transactions on its network, including files shared between users and any changes made over time.

This makes blockchain networks ideal platforms for verifying digital assets such as images and videos before they are shared online, ensuring only authentic content reaches its intended audience.

Education & Awareness

Educational programs and public awareness campaigns are essential components of any effort to combat deepfakes. Campaigns should focus on teaching people how to recognize potential.

Signs of manipulation in media, how best practices like verifying sources, checking metadata, and using cryptography can help protect them from falling victim, and how reporting suspicious activity can help prevent malicious actors from spreading false information.

Strategies for Increasing Public Awareness of DeepFake Technology for Political Campaigns

Social Media Campaigns

Social media campaigns can effectively raise awareness of deepfake technology and its potential implications for political campaigns. Platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram are great places to start, as they have large user bases that can be targeted with tailored messages.

These platforms allow users to easily share content, which can help to spread the message further. It is also essential to ensure that the messaging is clear and concise so that it is easily understandable by the target audience.


Advertising can also increase public awareness of deepfake technology for political campaigns. This could include running ads on television or radio, in newspapers or magazines, or online through websites or social media platforms. The key here is to ensure that the ads are creative and engaging to capture people’s attention and interest them in learning more about deepfakes.

Public Events

Organizing public events such as panel discussions, lectures, or workshops can be a great way to raise awareness of deepfake technology for political campaigns.

These events could feature experts who can provide insights into how deepfakes work and their potential implications for political campaigns. Inviting media members to attend these events can also draw attention from a wider audience.

Educational Materials

Creating educational materials such as brochures, infographics, or videos can effectively increase public awareness of deepfake technology for political campaigns. These materials should explain deepfakes and why they threaten democracy if politicians and other decision-makers do not appropriately address them.

They should also include tips on how people can identify whether a video has been manipulated using deepfake technology so that they are better prepared when viewing potentially suspect material online during an election campaign period.

Online Resources

Creating online resources such as websites Explicitly dedicated to educating people about deepfake technology for political campaigns is another great way to raise awareness about this issue among the general public.

These resources should provide comprehensive information on how deepfakes work and offer guidance on how individuals can spot manipulated videos during election periods so they do not become victims of misinformation campaigns orchestrated by malicious actors seeking to disrupt democratic processes with false information disseminated via digital channels.

Media Coverage

Reaching out directly to media members is another strategy for increasing public awareness of deepfakes concerning politics and elections. Providing journalists with accurate information about this issue will enable them to write stories about it, reaching a much larger audience than any other method mentioned above.

Journalists can also bring attention from policymakers who may have been unaware of this issue, thus helping create more stringent regulations around its use.

Partnerships With Political Parties

Partnering with political parties to educate their members about the dangers deepfakes pose during election periods is very beneficial. This would involve training sessions on detecting manipulated videos and advising how parties should respond if their candidates become victims of false information disseminated via digital channels.

Furthermore, this partnership could extend beyond just raising awareness. It could also lead to establishing stricter regulations around the use of fake news during elections, which would go some way towards protecting democracy from malicious actors seeking disruption through misinformation.

Grassroots Outreach Efforts

Grassroots outreach efforts such as door-to-door canvassing, leafleting, or holding community meetings are all ways politicians could engage directly with voters to inform them about issues related to deepfakes during election periods.

By speaking directly with constituents, politicians would have an opportunity to explain why it’s essential to protect democracy from manipulation by malicious actors using false information digitally disseminated – something that many voters may not have considered before hearing directly from their elected representatives.

Detect Fakes Experiment on Political Campaigns: Discerning Real from Fake Videos

The spread of fake news and misinformation has become a concerning issue in today’s society, particularly politics. With the rise of social media and ease of access to various digital platforms, false information can spread quickly and significantly impact political campaigns.

To tackle this problem, researchers have experimented with detecting fakes and discerning real from fake videos.

The Experiment involved a group of participants who were shown a series of videos related to political campaigns. Some of these videos were real, while others were fake videos created using artificial intelligence and deepfake technology. The participants were then asked to identify which videos were real or fake.

Understanding Creative Commons License and Attribution for Political Campaigns

In the context of political campaigns, using copyrighted materials such as music and images is commonplace. However, the unlicensed use of such material can lead to legal consequences, confusion, and misunderstanding among campaigners.

The Creative Commons license provides a mechanism through which creators can allow others to use their work under certain conditions that suit their interests. This license standardizes the terms of use, ensuring that creators retain control over their material while allowing others to utilize it.

Furthermore, the Attribution requirement of the Creative Commons license is essential for political campaigns to foster transparency and accountability. Attribution demands that the creator is credited with their work, indicating the source of the material.

Anyone reusing content must attribute the original creator to the audience noticeably and explicitly. Apart from upholding ethical practices, attribution gives the original creators the recognition they deserve.

Benefits of Using Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License for Political Campaigns

Free to Use:

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0) is free for anyone to use, allowing political campaigns to save money on licensing fees and other costs associated with copyright protection. This license allows users to modify and share the content if they attribute it to the original creator.

Increased Reach:

Using CC BY 4.0, political campaigns can reach a larger audience since their content can be freely shared and distributed without needing permission from the original creator or paying additional fees. Increased reach can help political campaigns spread their message more effectively and efficiently.

Legally Protected:

The CC BY 4.0 license provides legal protection for content creators and those who use it, ensuring that everyone is protected from potential copyright infringement claims or other legal issues that may arise from the unauthorized use of content.

Increased Visibility:

Using CC BY 4.0 also makes it easier for political campaigns to increase their visibility by allowing them to easily share their content with a broader audience, expanding their reach and exposure.

This license allows others to remix or repurpose the campaign’s content, leading to even more visibility for the campaign’s message and ideas.

Easier Collaboration:

The CC BY 4.0 license makes it easier for people from different organizations or countries to collaborate on projects since everyone knows what rights they have when using someone else’s work without needing to negotiate a separate agreement each time they want to use someone else’s work in a project or campaign material.

More Creative Freedom:

The CC BY 4.0 license also gives creators more creative freedom when creating new works since they are not limited by traditional copyright laws, which restrict how people can use existing results in new creations without permission from the original creator.

Easier Maintenance :

Since all materials created under this license are open source, it is much easier for political campaigns to maintain them over time. They do not need to track who owns what rights or negotiate new agreements whenever they need access or updates.

Improved Transparency :

CC BY 4.0 increases transparency around how political campaigns create and use content since everything created under this license must be attributed to its original creator, making it much easier for people to understand where information comes from and who owns what rights.

Guidelines for Properly Using Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License for Political Campaigns

As political campaigns are becoming more digital, it is essential to understand the proper use of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. This license allows creative assets, such as photos, videos, and audio clips, to be shared and used with proper attribution.

However, political campaigns must abide by specific guidelines to ensure the license is used correctly. Firstly, they must ensure they are not misrepresenting the original content creator or work.

It is also crucial to ensure that the use of the content does not mislead the public about the original creator’s endorsement or support.

The use of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License also requires proper attribution. All the creative assets used in political campaigns must be attributed to the original creators. It should be clear to the public who the content belongs to and who has the right to use it.

Potential Legal Issues Associated with Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License for Political Campaigns

The Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License has gained immense popularity among political campaigns as a means of licensing and sharing their creative content.

However, this license may pose potential legal issues for political campaigns, especially when using third-party material without proper attribution or consent.

One of the main concerns is that political campaigns may inadvertently violate copyright laws by using copyrighted material without authorization or attribution.

This can result in costly legal battles and damage the campaign’s reputation. In particular, movements should be cautious when using music, photographs, and video footage owned by others.

Moreover, there is a risk of misusing or misrepresenting the licensed material – a potential issue that could lead to lawsuits from the original creators. Public personalities, political figures, and brands have sued political campaigns for unauthorized or misleadingly using their images or branding without proper attribution or consent.

Best Practices for Crediting Creative Commons Content on Political Campaigns

It is becoming increasingly common for political campaigns to use Creative Commons content in their advertising materials to save costs and enhance their message.

However, proper credit must be given to the creators of such content to comply with Creative Commons licensing guidelines and avoid copyright infringement.

To ensure adherence to best practices, campaigns should indicate the source and attribution of any Creative Commons content used in their materials. This can be achieved by placing the creator’s name or username alongside the content or providing a direct link to the original material.

Furthermore, campaigns should take the time to thoroughly read the specific Creative Commons license of the content they wish to use and ensure they comply with its guidelines.

Some licenses may require more than proper attribution, such as prohibiting commercial use or mandating the creation of derivative works.

How to Get in Touch with the DeepFake Research Project Team for Political Campaigns

If you are a political campaign manager or strategist, exploring DeepFake technology in your campaigning strategy can be a game-changer.

The DeepFake Research Project, a team of experts in DeepFake technology, offers cutting-edge solutions to help political campaigns leverage this powerful tool.

To contact the DeepFake Research Project team, visit their official website or social media channels to learn more about their services and solutions. You can also directly contact them using the contact details provided on their website.

The team member will schedule a consultation with you to help understand your campaign’s needs and offer personalized solutions tailored to your objectives.

The DeepFake Research Project team boasts years of experience in DeepFake technology development, and their track record speaks for itself. They have successfully worked on projects related to political campaigns, enabling their clients to effectively target and engage with their audience and achieve their objectives.

Collaborating and Contributing to the DeepFake Research Project for Political Campaigns

The rise of deepfake technology has become a cause for concern among policymakers and researchers alike. As we approach the 2020 political campaign season, the potential negative impact of deepfakes on public discourse has become alarming.

Deepfakes present a clear and substantive threat to the integrity of our democratic process, as they can be used to spread misinformation about political candidates and their campaigns.

The potential for deepfakes to be used to undermine the legitimacy of our elections is accurate, and it is vital that we, as researchers and policymakers, work together to find solutions to this issue.

One way in which this problem can be addressed is through collaboration and contribution to the DeepFake Research Project. This project aims to comprehensively understand deepfake technology, including its potential applications, strengths, and vulnerabilities.

By leveraging the expertise of researchers and policymakers across various fields, we can generate meaningful insights and develop effective preventive measures.

Connecting with Project Partners and Research Groups for Political Campaigns

Connecting with project partners and research groups is essential to any political campaign. The success of a political campaign depends on the coordination and collaboration between various stakeholders, including political parties, research groups, and campaign strategists.

With the help of project partners and research groups, political leaders can analyze the political landscape, identify critical issues, and develop effective strategies to engage with their constituents.

In today’s fast-paced political landscape, it is crucial to have access to reliable data and insights. Political campaigns require extensive research and analysis to ensure that the strategies developed are evidence-based and effective in achieving the set goals.

Research groups and project partners are instrumental in providing such data and insights, making them crucial allies for any political campaign.

Questions, Feedback, and Support for the Detect Fakes Project for Political Campaigns

As the importance of detecting fake news in political campaigns continues to rise, we at the Detect Fakes project are committed to providing comprehensive support to our users. Our team can always provide prompt and thorough answers if you have questions or concerns about the project.

In addition to addressing queries, we welcome feedback on our platform and continually strive to improve our services. We are open to constructive criticism, as it is through feedback that we can continue to refine our project to meet the users’ needs genuinely.

Moreover, we understand how crucial it is for individuals to have reliable support when navigating the complex world of political campaigns. As such, the Detect Fakes project provides robust reinforcement to ensure our users can access the resources they need to make informed decisions.

Whether it is a comprehensive FAQ section, user forums, or direct customer support, we are committed to providing our users with the necessary support they require.

How to Get Involved in the Detect Fakes Experiment for Political Campaigns

Participating in the Detect Fakes experiment could be an excellent opportunity to contribute to the fight against political disinformation and fake news.

This online experiment is a joint project between researchers from several international universities aimed at improving people’s ability to detect and combat political disinformation.

To get involved in the Detect Fakes experiment, you must visit the project’s website and sign up as a participant. The Experiment is entirely online, and you can take part anywhere worldwide. Participants will be presented with news articles and videos and asked to distinguish between real and fake political content.

The Detect Fakes experiment has several benefits for participants. Besides being a fun and engaging way to learn about political disinformation, participants will contribute to scientific research.

The experiment results will help researchers understand how people perceive and react to political disinformation and develop new strategies to combat it.

Benefits of Participating in the DeepFake Detection Experiment for Political Campaigns

Participating in the DeepFake Detection Experiment for Political Campaigns can offer numerous immediate and long-term benefits.

In today’s digital age, spreading false information or disinformation is a significant challenge, particularly during political campaigns where false news can be prevalent, negatively impacting public opinion of candidates or policies.

By participating in this critical Experiment, individuals can make valuable contributions towards discovering, preventing, and curtailing the spread of DeepFake videos, which are increasingly prevalent in portraying false information or opinions.

The benefits of participating in the DeepFake Detection Experiment are numerous. Firstly, it can help safeguard the integrity and credibility of political campaigns, ensuring that the public receives factual and relevant information that aids informed decision-making.

Detection of DeepFakes during political campaigns can help prevent the spread of false information and mitigate its impact on the election results – a critical situation in facilitating the will of the people.

Step-by-step Guide to Participating in the Detect Fakes Experiment for Political Campaigns

As the world becomes increasingly digital, it has become easier for individuals and organizations to spread misleading information through the internet.

Political campaigns are no exception to this trend, with fake news and propaganda being an increasingly common tactics employed by various political groups. The Detect Fakes Experiment was created to empower citizens to identify and report fake political content in response to this phenomenon.

If you are interested in contributing to this Experiment, here is a step-by-step guide to getting involved:

Sign up for the Detect Fakes platform:

To participate in this experiment, you must register for an account on the Detect Fakes website. This process is straightforward and will require you to provide some basic information about yourself.

Complete the training modules:

Before identifying fake political content, you must undergo a brief training session. This training will teach you the various techniques used to create and spread fake political content and how to spot them. It will also give you an overview of the Detect Fakes platform.

Start detecting fake content:

Once you have completed training, you will be ready to identify fake content. The Detect Fakes platform will present you with articles, videos, or images related to political campaigns.

Your job will be to read or watch the content and determine whether it is accurate or fake. You can flag content you believe is affected and briefly explain why you think it is fake.

Review flagged content:

Once multiple users have flagged content, it will be reviewed by the Detect Fakes team. If the team determines the content is fake, they will take appropriate action, such as removing it from the internet or notifying relevant authorities.

Privacy and Data Protection during the Detect Fakes Experiment for Political Campaigns

During the Detect Fakes experiment for political campaigns, ensuring privacy and data protection is paramount. The Experiment uses artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques to identify and flag fake news and misinformation on social media platforms. This requires accessing and analyzing large amounts of users’ data, which raises concerns about privacy violations and unauthorized use of personal information.

To address these concerns, the Experiment employs strict data protection measures, such as anonymization and encryption of sensitive data. The researchers also comply with legal regulations and ethical standards, ensuring that users’ consent is obtained before their data is accessed and that their privacy is respected throughout the Experiment.

Frequently Asked Questions about the Detect Fakes Experiment for Political Campaigns

The Detect Fakes Experiment for Political Campaigns is a cutting-edge initiative to identify and flag fake news and propaganda during political campaigns.

By leveraging advanced machine learning algorithms and natural language processing techniques, the Detect Fakes Experiment can analyze massive amounts of data on social media platforms and other online sources to determine which claims and stories are true or false.

One of the primary goals of the Detect Fakes Experiment is to help prevent the spread of misinformation during political campaigns, which can have severe consequences for democracy and public trust. By identifying and flagging fake news stories, the Experiment can help voters make more informed decisions and preventthe  dissemination of false information that could sway election outcomes.

To participate in the Detect Fakes Experiment, interested parties can sign up online and contribute their data and insights to the project. This could include sharing news stories, analyzing patterns of social media activity, or providing feedback on the accuracy and credibility of various claims.

The Intersection of Human-Computer Interaction and Artificial Intelligence for Political Campaigns

The intersection of human-computer interaction and artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly becoming a popular option for political campaigns. By leveraging the power of AI and its ability to analyze large amounts of data, political campaign managers can craft more effective outreach strategies that resonate with voters.

One of the key benefits of using AI in political campaigns is the ability to tailor messaging and outreach efforts to specific demographics. This level of targeted communication can improve engagement and increase the likelihood of converting undecided voters.

AI algorithms can analyze user data from social media profiles, search histories, and other sources to gain insights into the preferences and behaviors of individual voters. This information can be used to create personalized political messages that resonate better with the target demographic.

Another significant benefit of AI for political campaigns is the ability to automate specific tasks, such as voter outreach and analysis. This can save campaign managers and volunteers substantial time and effort, allowing them to focus on other critical aspects of the campaign.

For example, AI can automate sending personalized emails and messages to voters, improving engagement rates while freeing up valuable staff time.

Role of Data in Researching AI’s Impact on Government for Political Campaigns

The advent of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has far-reaching implications for government and political campaigns. With AI’s emergence into the mainstream arena, it is more crucial than ever to understand its consequences on the democratic process and the various issues that arise from AI usage in politics. To this end, data is critical in researching AI’s impact on the government for political campaigns.

Data is the backbone of any AI-driven system, and political campaigns are no exception. This data feeds the machine learning algorithms deployed in political campaigns, making them more thoughtful, efficient, and precise in targeting voters.

This technology helps political campaigns zero in on specific populations likely to vote for their candidate, giving them an advantage over their competitors.

Social Science Perspectives on Human-Machine Interaction for Political Campaigns

Human-machine interaction (HMI) has become an increasingly important aspect of political campaigning in modern times. Technology to engage with voters has become ubiquitous, with social media, websites, and mobile applications being used to disseminate information, mobilize supporters, and raise funds.

Social scientists have begun to examine the impact of HMI on political campaigning and its effects on voter behavior. Research has shown that HMI can influence attitudes and behaviors in several ways.

For example, HMI can affect levels of trust in political candidates and parties and increase engagement and participation in the political process. However, the effectiveness of HMI depends on its design, content, and the degree to which it is personalized and tailored to individual voters.


The use of AI deepfakes in political campaigns is a growing concern in the digital era. It is essential to know how deepfakes work and how to spot them.

You can protect yourself from misinformation and false content by being vigilant about the source, checking for unnatural movements, using technology, checking context, and consulting multiple sources. Remember, it is crucial to be a responsible digital citizen and help others identify deepfakes.

In the digital age, deepfake videos are becoming more prevalent and are a growing concern for political campaigns. It is essential to know how to spot deepfakes and take preventive measures to stop their spread.

Following the above tips can avoid these manipulations and protect yourself from being misled. As deepfakes continue to evolve, these tips will be a tool for you to stay ahead of manipulators and maintain your digital safety and security.


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Published On: October 2nd, 2023 / Categories: Political Marketing /

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